Prinsip keadilan terhadap hak keperdataan anak luar nikah sebelum dan setelah putusan Mahkamah Konstitusi nomor 46/PUU-VIII/201

Farahi, Ahmad (2013) Prinsip keadilan terhadap hak keperdataan anak luar nikah sebelum dan setelah putusan Mahkamah Konstitusi nomor 46/PUU-VIII/201. Masters thesis, Universitas Islam Negeri Maulana Malik Ibrahim.

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Abstract

INDONESIA:

Di dalam regulasi peraturan di Indonesia, anak terbagi menjadi dua kategori, yaitu anak yang sah dan anak luar nikah (tidak sah). Anak sah adalah anak yang dilahirkan dalam perkawinan yang sah. Sedangkan anak luar nikah (tidak sah) adalah anak yang dilahirkan di luar pernikahan. Anak sah mempunyai hubungan perdata dengan ayah dan ibunya serta keluarga ayah dan ibunya tersebut, tetapi bagi anak luar nikah, sebelum putusan MK No. 46/PUU-VIII/2010 dikeluarkan, UU Perkawinan menyatakan bahwa anak luar nikah hanya mempunyai hubungan perdata dengan ibunya dan keluarga ibunya. Namun, setelah putusan MK No. 46/PUU-VIII/2010 dikeluarkan, anak yang dilahirkan di luar perkawinan selain mempunyai hubungan perdata dengan ibunya dan keluarga ibunya, juga mempunyai hubungan perdata dengan laki-laki sebagai ayahnya yang dapat dibuktikan berdasarkan ilmu pengetahuan dan teknologi dan/atau alat bukti lain menurut hukum mempunyai hubungan darah, termasuk hubungan perdata dengan keluarga ayahnya. Hal ini tentunya berimbas pada hak-hak keperdataan yang berhak diterima anak luar nikah dari ayah biologisnya.

Berdasarkan persoalan di atas, maka penelitian ini membahas tentang tinjauan prinsip keadilan terhadap hak keperdataan anak luar nikah sebelum putusan MK No. 46/PUU-VIII/2010. Serta tinjauan prinsip keadilan terhadap hak keperdataan anak luar nikah setelah putusan tersebut dikeluarkan oleh Mahkamah Konstituasi.

Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian kepustakaan (library research) dengan menggunakan pendekatan kaulitatif dan pendekatan perbandingan (comparative approach). Dalam menganalisa, peneliti menggunakan metode analisis isi (content analysis method) dengan membandingkan prinsip keadilan terhadap hak-hak keperdataan yang berhak diterima anak luar nikah sebelum putusan MK No. 46/PUUVIII/2010 dikeluarkan dan setelah putusan tersebut dengan menggunakan beberapa konsep keadilan, yaitu menurut prinsip keadilan Islam, Barat, maupun perspektif HAM.

Simpulan yang dapat ditarik dari penelitian ini: pertama, sebelum putusan MK No. 46/PUU-VIII/2010 tersebut dikeluarkan, anak luar nikah belum mendapatkan hakhak keperdataannya secara adil. Baik menurut prinsip keadilan Islam, Barat, maupun perspektif HAM. Kedua, setelah putusan MK No. 46/PUU-VIII/2010 tersebut dikeluarkan, anak luar nikah berhak mendapatkan hak-hak keperdataannya secara adil. Baik menurut prinsip keadilan Islam, Barat, maupun perspektif HAM. Yakni dalam prinsip keadilan menurut Murtadha Muthahari dan Madjid Khadduri. Juga konsep keadilan barat yang diwakili teori keadilannya John Rawls dan teori keadilan kamutatifnya Aristoteles juga nilai keadilannya Gustav Radbruch. Begitu juga dengan prinsip keadilan dalam HAM yang menekankan kesetaraan, non diskriminasi, dan kewajiban negara untuk melindungi hak-hak warga negaranya.

ENGLISH:

In the regulation of law in Indonesia, children are divided into two categories, namely legitimate children and illegitimate children. Legitimate children are children that are born in a legal marriage. While illegitimate children are children that are born out of legal marriage. legitimate Children have civil relationship with his father and mother as well as father and mother’s family, but the illegitimate children, before the decision of the Constitutional Court No. 46/PUU-VIII/2010 issued, the Marriage Act states that illegitimate children only have civil relationship with her mother and her mother's family. However, after the decision of the Court No. 46/PUU-VIII/2010 issued , children who are born outside of legal marriage in addition to having a civil relationship with her mother and her mother's family, also have a civil relationship with her father as a man who can be proven by science and technology and / or other evidence aproved by law has a blood relationship , including civil relationship with his family . This is certainly an impact on civil rights is entitled to a child out of wedlock from her biological father.

Based on the above issues , this study discusses the principles of justice to review civil rights of a illegitimate children before the decision of the Court No. 46/PUUVIII/2010. As well as a review of the principles of justice in civil rights of illegitimate children after the decision issued by the Constitutional Court.

This research is a library research using quallitative approach and comparative approach. In analyzing, the researcher uses content analysis method by comparing the principle of justice for civil rights is entitled to illegitimate children before the decision of the Court No.46/PUU-VIII/2010 issued and after the decision, using the concepts of justice, which according to the principles of Islamic justice, the West, and the human rights perspective.

Conclusions that can be drawn from this study : first , before the decision of the Court No.46/PUU-VIII/2010 was issued , illegitimate children do not get their rights fairly, according to the principles of Islamic justice, the West, and the human rights perspective. Second , after the decision of the Court No.46/PUU-VIII/2010 was issued, illegitimate children get their rights. according to the principles of Islamic justice, the West, and the human rights perspective. That is the principle of Islamic justice according to Murtadha Muthahari and Madjid Khadduri. Also represented western concepts of justice of John Rawls's theory of justice and fairness theory Aristotle also value fairness of Gustav Radbruch. also with the human rights principles of justice that emphasizes equality, non- discrimination, and the state's obligation to protect the rights of its citizens.

Item Type: Thesis (Masters)
Supervisor: Tamrin, Dahlan and Saifullah, Saifullah
Keywords: Keadilan; Hak Keperdataan; Anak Luar Nikah; Justice; Civil Rights; Child Outside of Marriage
Departement: Sekolah Pascasarjana > Program Studi Magister al-Ahwal al-Syakhshiyyah
Depositing User: Dian Anesti
Date Deposited: 11 Aug 2017 09:25
Last Modified: 11 Aug 2017 09:25
URI: http://etheses.uin-malang.ac.id/id/eprint/7796

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