Persepsi santri terhadap perilaku Kepemimpinan Kiai di Pondok Pesantren: Studi Interaksionisme Simbolik di Pondok Pesantren Sidogiri–Pasuruan

Haryanto, Sugeng (2011) Persepsi santri terhadap perilaku Kepemimpinan Kiai di Pondok Pesantren: Studi Interaksionisme Simbolik di Pondok Pesantren Sidogiri–Pasuruan. Doctoral thesis, Universitas Islam Negeri Maulana Malik Ibrahim.

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Abstract

ABSTRAK

Signifikansi peran kiai di pondok pesantren diikuti adanya interaksi antara kiai sebagai pengasuh dengan komunitasnya (santri). Sedangkan model interaksi yang ditampilkan ada perbedaan antara satu kiai dengan kiai lainnya sesuai dengan tipologi pondok pesantrennya. Dalam penelitian ini ada tiga tujuan yang dicapai: 1) memperoleh deskripsi dan gambaran lengkap tentang persepsi santri terhadap perilaku kepemimpinan kiai, 2) memperoleh deskripsi dan gambaran lengkap terkait dengan persepsi santri terhadap varian model interaksi kiai dengan santri, dan 3) mendapatkan deskripsi dan gambaran lengkap tentang makna interaksi kiai dengan santri.

Jenis penelitian yang digunakan adalah penelitian kualitatif dan menggunakan metode studi kasus. Pondok Pesantren Sidogiri Kabupaten Pasuruan dipilih sebagai lokasi penelitian karena pondok pesantren tersebut merupakan pondok pesantren salaf berkarakteristik modern, dan santrinya berwawasan serta berperilaku modern. Data diperoleh dengan observasi terlibat (participant observation), wawancara mendalam (depth interview), dan dokumen-dokumen (documents). Analisis data menggunakan teknik domain analysis, taxonomic analysis, componential analysis dan theme analysis. Standar agar penelitian ini mendapat keterpercayaan adalah: Standar kredibilitas dengan melakukan; prolonged engagement, persistent obsevation, triangulasi, peer debriefing, member check. Standar transferabilitas, standar dependabilitas, dan standar konfirmabilitas.

Ada tiga proposisi yang diperoleh , yaitu, 1) Integrasi karismatik, motivasi, keteladanan, inspiratif, penghargaan, dan pendelegasian dalam kepemimpinan kiai merupakan perilaku untuk
melahirkan kepemimpinan religio-transformatif. 2) Interaksi kiai dengan santri di pondok
pesantren sebagai pola interaksi yang ekuevalen merupakan determinasi lahirnya varian model interaksi, yaitu, interaksi fisik (al-mu’amalah al-jismiyah), interaksi pola pikir (al-mu’amalah al-fikriyah), dan interaksi roh (al-mu’amalah al-rûhiyah), 3) Kepemimpinan religio- transformatif berperan dalam membangun interaksi santri untuk mewujudkan keseimbangan fungsi dan makna kehidupannya.

Implikasi teoritik dari penelitian ini dengan temuan varian model interaksi untuk memperkaya kajian manajemen Pendidikan Islam dalam perspektif teori interaksionisme simbolik. Implikasi praktis dari penelitian ini adalah dengan ditemukan perilaku kepemimpinan kiai religio-transformatif, varian model interaksi kiai dengan santri, dan terwujudkan keseimbangan fungsi dan makna kehidupan santri, dapat memberikan gambaran bahwa, para santri diberikan peluang untuk pengembangan kualitas Sumber Daya Santri. Inter-relasi antar proposisi di atas ditawarkan sebuah konsep bahwa, perilaku Kepemimpinan kiai religio- transformatif, aktualisasi sistem religi, keseimbangan fungsi dan makna kehidupan santri merupakan determinasi lahirnya varian model interaksi; interaksi fisik, interaksi pola pikir, dan interaksi roh dalam kehidupan sosial komunitas pondok pesantren. Tiga varian model interaksi tersebut adalah; al-mu’amalah al-jismiyah (physical interaction), al-mu’amalah al-fikriyah (intellectual interaction), dan al-mu’amalah al-rûhiyah (spiritual interaction).

ABSTRACT

The significance of role of kiai at Pondok Pesantren is followed by the interaction between kiai as a leader with his students. Meanwhile, a model of interaction appeared in this interaction has different model of interaction among kiais (leaders) in general. This appearance is raised based on the typology of Pondok Pesantren it self. The present study aims at these following purposes: firstly, getting detail information about students’ perception towards the behavioral leadership of kiai; secondly, getting detail information in relation with students’ perception towards the model of interaction between kiai and his students (santri); third, getting detail information about meaningful value of interaction between kiai and his students (santri).

In this current study, the researcher employs a qualitative research design. For the purpose, a case study is employed. Pondok Pesantren Sidogiri Pasuruan is selected as an object of the research of the present study due to the fact that this institution is such kind of a classic institution with a modern style for both kiai and his students (santri). The data is obtained from participant observation, in-depth interview, and documents. The data analysis used in this current study are domain analysis, taxonomic analysis, componential analysis, and theme analysis. To verify and to validate the data, the researcher uses these following standards: first, prolonged engagement, persistent observation, triangulation, peer debriefing, and member check; second, transferability standard; third, dependability standard, and forth, confirmability standard.

The researcher finds out three main points in this present study, they are: first, charismatic integrity, motivation, leadership, inspiration, reward, and the delegation of kiai’s leadership as a behavior reflect a leadership in term of a transformative religious; second, the interaction between kiai and his students (santri) in Pondok Pesantren as a form of equivalent interaction reflect models of interaction such as physical interaction (al-mu’amalah al-jismiyah), intellectual interaction (al- mu’amalah al-fikriyah), and spiritual interaction (al-mu’amalah al-ruhiyah); third, the leadership of transformative religious plays an important role in building students’ interaction. It is performed in order to make a balance of function and meaning of students’ life.

The theoretical implication of this current study is to enrich the theoretical basis of a symbolic interactionism theory. In addition, the practical implication of this present study shows that the behavioral leadership of kiai reflects these following areas: the leadership in term of transformative religious, a model of an interaction between kiai and his students (santri), and the existence of making a balance of function and meaning of students’ life give students opportunities to develop the quality of students recourses. Those interrelationships previously are found out the concept that is a behavioral leadership of kiai in term of transformative religious, actualization of religious system, a balance of function and meaning of students’ life form a model of interaction; physical interaction, intellectual interaction, and spiritual interaction in the social comunity life of Pondok Pesantren. Those three models of interaction are al-mu’amalah al-jismiyah (physical interaction), al-mu’amalah al-fikriyah (intellectual interaction), and al-mu’amalah al-ruhiyah (spiritual interaction)

Item Type: Thesis (Doctoral)
Supervisor: Rahardjo, Mudjia and Soetopo, Hendyat and Saiban, Kasuwi
Keywords: Persepsi; Santri; perilaku; kepemimpinan; kiai,Interaksionisme Simbolik; Perception; Students; Behavior; Leadership; Kiai; Symbolic interactionism
Departement: Sekolah Pascasarjana > Program Studi Doktor Manajemen Pendidikan Islam
Depositing User: Mohammad Syahriel Ar
Date Deposited: 05 Mar 2018 08:45
Last Modified: 05 Mar 2018 08:45
URI: http://etheses.uin-malang.ac.id/id/eprint/10128

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